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Methods of Curing a Concrete Slab

1. Water Curing Method
The Water curing method is most general methods of curing as it satisfies all the requirements of curing. These methods maintain the presence of moisture in the concrete during the early hardening period. One of the most common water curing method that is used in the business is the spraying method. Curing by spraying of water is one of the conventional methods of curing concrete in the construction industry. It can be an efficient method for curing by supplying additional moisture during hot weather. By using nozzles or sprayers, water is sprayed on the concrete members, which are to be cured.

2. Membrane Curing of Concrete
Another method of concrete curing is the membrane curing method. Sometimes you pour concrete at a remote place where there might be an acute shortage of water. The large amount of water required for water curing method is not possible for economy reasons too. One type of membrane curing is called the A)wet covering method. In this method water absorbent fabrics are used to maintain moisture on the concrete surface by completely covering the surface immediately after the concrete has hardened sufficiently. They must be continuously kept wet to prevent the fabric from absorbing water from the body of concrete, due to capillary action. Generally jute bags, cotton mats, hussian cloth, etc. are used as a covering.

B)Another type of membrane curing method that can be used is plastic sheeting. The plastic sheet covers the concrete so that it seals the evaporation of water from concrete. A plastic sheet made from polyethylene film is an effective moisture retarder, lightweight and can be used on horizontal and vertical surfaces as well as on the surface of different shapes and sizes.

3. Concrete Curing Compounds
The last type of concrete curing method on the list is the concrete curing compounds. This type of compound form a thin liquid membrane on the concrete surfaces and result in prevention to a certain extent of evaporation losses. Generally, they are available in two types, clear or translucent and white pigmented. The clear or translucent concrete curing compound may contain a fugitive dye to assure complete coverage of the concrete surface by visual inspection. This dye fades as the application is few hours old.

Bleeding in Concrete – Does it Affect Concrete Integrity?

Bleeding in concrete, as seen from the photo above, is a physical migration of water on the surface of concrete after compaction of concrete and before the concrete set. Bleeding water carries more amount of cement particles which makes a layer of water on the concrete surface.

Bleeding in concrete affects concrete’s properties. Bleeding can be decreased by increasing the fineness of cement because finer particles hydrate earlier and their rate of sedimentation is lower.

Increasing fineness of cement for an ordinary user is not within your control. You may think of it while buying next lot of cement. However, from practical prospective, we advise to control other’s factor such as higher water-cement ratio, over vibration, etc…
The properties of cement are not the only sole factor influencing the bleeding of concrete. The presence of fine aggregates and higher water-cement ratio also lead to bleeding.

Bleeding in Concrete: Disadvantages
• Concrete becomes porous. This is one the reasons for leakages in buildings.
• It loses the homogeneity of concrete.
• It decreases strength and wear resistance of concrete.
• It makes the poor bond between two layers of concrete as well as the bond between concrete and reinforcement.
• In the construction of concrete pavement, if water accumulates on the surface of pavement slab, the bleeding water flows over the unsupported side which causes collapsing of sides!
• Bleeding water on concrete surface delay the surface finishing for the concrete finishers and the overall application of curing.
• If concrete is poured by a pump truck, Bleeding water reduces the pumping ability of concrete.

Dear Customers: Concrete and Cement are NOT the same !

Concrete is a mixture of 60 – 65% aggregates like sand, gravel, and crushed stone, 15 – 20% water, and only 10 – 15% cement. When mixed, the cement and water harden, binding the aggregates into the solid mass we call concrete. So, there is no such thing as a cement sidewalk!

Here’s one of the main reasons cement and concrete are so often confused: There is cement in concrete. When cement is blended with water, it creates a paste. And when that paste is combined with aggregates like gravel and sand, the result is what we know and love as concrete. Cement itself is made from calcium and silica-rich materials, such as limestone and clay. Its unique adhesive properties make it an excellent binding agent, but on its own, cement is prone to cracking. Compared with concrete, which can last hundreds of years, cement is much less durable. To use an analogy, cement is to concrete as milk is to ice cream. Sure, ice cream has milk in it, but it isn’t milk. It’s actually much better.


Wearable exoskeleton devices can reduce some of the mechanical stress of manual labor. These wearable machines can be powered by electricity or by human motion, and they can be as large as a space suit or as small as a glove (approx. $6,000 and weighs about nine pounds.). They are used to amplify or transform worker movements, improve biomechanics and efficiency, and are increasingly prevalent in the public and private sectors. As these devices are deployed more widely in the workplace, sound research is required to assess potential dangers and benefits of this new technology.
Construction is a physically demanding, labor-intensive industry with heavy manual material handling and awkward work postures. Musculoskeletal disorders are a leading cause of injury among construction workers, with overexertion in lifting causing over one-third of these injuries. The rate of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in construction is 16% higher than in all industries combined. Since back injuries are the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in construction, and shoulder and other joint injuries are also major causes of injury, exoskeletons present an attractive possibility.
In a study of forward bend lifting using an exoskeleton designed to decrease load to the spine and improve posture, researchers found that exoskeletons decrease total work, fatigue and load while improving posture. This is supported by additional studies. In addition to decreasing load on the spine, exoskeletons have been shown to decrease shoulder discomfort while increasing productivity and work quality among painters and welders.
There are relatively few studies concerning use of exoskeletons in construction to reduce risk factors of load handling. Some field trials have been conducted in Europe. Preliminary results of a recent study in France suggest that a device designed to provide overhead load assistance to the user had the adverse effect of creating additional effort to counteract resistance when the arms moved beyond the intended range. Another French study found that exoskeleton users were able to operate an overhead tool using less force and that users reported “certain types of pain disappeared.” However, this seemed to be a highly specialized task, involving skilled and technical application of plaster, and it is not clear how broadly the preliminary study can be interpreted. Both reports highlighted the importance of considering how the exoskeleton is adapted to the specific work task and the acquired skills of the user.
Much of the research and progress in the U.S. that is relevant to exoskeleton usage in industry and rehabilitation has been supported by the U.S. Department of Defense. The U.S. military, collaborating with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, evaluated exoskeleton use in naval shipyard industrial settings. Naval shipyard workers lift heavy hand-held tools and supplies, work in awkward postures, and work at various heights as in construction. A study of the industrial human augmentation system (iHAS), an integrated system composed of two different exoskeletons found that use of the iHAS was associated with an approximately ten percent increase in productivity, a reduction in vibration of the hands, and improved quality of work.
Exoskeletons have the potential to enhance worker productivity, provide assistance to aging workers, and decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has examined the need for standards and test methods related to the use of exoskeletons. In Europe, a 2015 European Union (EU) research and development project set out to develop “standards for the safety of exoskeletons used by industrial workers performing manual handling activities.” The effort involved creating an exoskeleton hazard database to describe potential hazards throughout the exoskeleton’s lifecycle; identifying strategies to mitigate and reduce risks; and creating systems to test exoskeleton design concepts for their ability to perform tasks safely. The intent of this effort is to develop policies and standards for exoskeleton use in industry. Currently, there is insufficient data to determine complete safety profiles or health effects for long-term use of exoskeletons. Future research, is needed to develop appropriate standards before construction workers are exposed to the potential hazards associated with their use.

NYC: DOT Sidewalk Violation Guide for Homeowners (EXPLAINED)

What is a sidewalk violation?

A sidewalk violation is an official notice issued by DOT stating that your sidewalk is defective. There is no fine associated with a violation. A copy of the notice is filed with the County Clerk and remains on file until the Clerk receives official notification from the City that satisfactory repairs have been made. A violation can complicate selling or refinancing your property.
The City issues sidewalk violations in order to encourage property owners to repair their sidewalks to enhance public safety. Property owners are encouraged to perform repairs to their sidewalks before a condition becomes a defect which would give rise to a violation. Upon failure of a property owner to remedy the sidewalk defect cited in a violation issued by DOT after an inspection, DOT may perform the work or hire a contractor to perform the work and the Department of Finance will bill the property owner pursuant to Section 19-152 of the New York Administrative Code.
If you do not perform repairs within 45 days, DOT may perform the work or hire a contractor to perform the work and the Department of Finance will bill the property owner.

Examples of Sidewalk Violations

Collapsed Sidewalk

Trip Hazard

Hardware Trip Hazard

Tree Roots

Improper Slope


How do I correct a sidewalk violation?

Hire an Experienced Contractor (Biordi Concrete)
Biordi Concrete is a is the premier service provider for a variety of important services, including New York City sidewalk repairs. Anyone who is familiar with the NYC area knows how important our sidewalks are here. They are just as important as our roadways, if not more so.
Addressing the need for sidewalk repairs in New York City must be handled in a prompt and professional manner, and in strict accordance with industry codes and guidelines.
Much of the work that we do is the direct results of a notice of violation from the Department of Transportation (DOT.) If you have received a notice of violation, you must perform repairs within 45 days. if not, DOT may perform the work or hire a contractor to perform the work and the Department of Finance (DOF) will bill the property owner.

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What are the risks of having open sidewalk violations on a building?

The DOT has stated that if repairs are not made within the required timeframe (45 days), they may perform repair work themselves or bid the work to an approved contractor.
The cost of the work will then be added to the lot’s property taxes, and become a lien if unpaid. Failing to satisfy these violations may also result in difficulty during a property transaction or refinance. An owner may also be held liable if anyone injures themselves on the unrepaired sidewalk.

Contesting a Violation

Incorrect Owner
Violations may occasionally be issued to an incorrect property. Match the preliminary inspection report with your property. Check the width and other dimensions of the property. Check the locations trees, signs, utility caps, cellar doors or other features. If it still appears that it is not your property, visit 311 Online and request a Sidewalk Violation Search.

Requesting a Re-Inspection

If you look at your property and don’t find the marked defects, you may request a re-inspection within 45 days of receiving your Notice of Violation. For a re-inspection, visit 311 Online and request a Sidewalk Violation Re-inspection.
A re-inspection is a second inspection of the sidewalk by a different inspector who does not have access to the report made by the first inspector. You will be notified by mail at least five days before the re-inspection date. Inspectors will not come to your door as they are prohibited from seeking out property owners when conducting re-inspections. This is your final inspection. The results of the re-inspection will be mailed to you.

Paying The Price For The Love of Concrete

Here’s a warning to all the mothers/wives out there; concrete is an addictive, obsessive, all-consuming trade and once we start in it, we can’t escape it. Concrete occupies our minds at night, robbing us of sleep. It distracts us and consumes our thoughts while our spouses are talking to us, we will never avoid critiquing concrete work which we observe everywhere in our off hours, and it takes a toll on our bodies as we quietly carry our aches and pains to the grave. Did we order enough concrete? Will the concrete truck be on time? I really hope the concrete truck doesn’t bring a 8” slump… are all thoughts that are constantly going through our minds. Once concrete is coursing through our veins, we are willing to sacrifice a normal life for our trade.
Working in concrete, we take our lives in our hands daily; we can’t afford to ignore the dangers that surround us. Whether it’s a loose chute swinging by our head missing us by inches, having the winter concrete touch your skin leaving a bad rash, climbing scaffolding to work on a tall foundation, unclamping high-pressure pump hoses or banging our hoses to get a plug out, or getting cut by a trowel in the back pocket of the guy screeding the concrete, this trade has its inherent dangers which we must always be aware of. We’ll pay a much higher price than losing any eye or a few digits if we ever forget this.
Many years ago, Johnny Carson had a skit on his Tonight Show where he drank so much coffee, when they pricked him with a pin, coffee flowed out instead of blood. I’m pretty sure there will be more than one undertaker who’ll get the surprise of their life. For when they go to embalm an old concrete worker, instead of just draining their blood, they’ll discover there’s something gray in their veins.

Eight Life Lessons Concrete Has Taught Me

Growing up, my dad would often say, “Experience is a great teacher…if it doesn’t kill you.” When we worked together , not a week went by without him repeating this mantra. It was his way of saying, ‘Pay attention, always try to learn something, and be careful.’
Our trade can be dangerous and it has a lot to teach us. Think of the poor guys who’ve lost fingers setting up ready-mixed chutes or who’ve lost hands in conveyors or in pumps. Or those who, tragically, lost their lives on the job.
Concrete has taught me many personal lessons, and I’m sure I’m not alone. It’s taught me to monitor the economy just like the weather – many years are feast or famine in our trade. It’s taught me that having a rock-solid work ethic is the best way to build a good reputation, which is priceless.
Concrete has taught me to ignore the color of someone’s skin, their educational credentials or lack thereof, and their physique. Some of the smartest people I’ve worked with didn’t graduate from high school, some of the hardest-working people are multiethnic, and some of the toughest people I know don’t weigh 130 pounds soaking wet.
Concrete has taught me time and time again about the value of mentoring. When I started finishing, I grew only because of the seasoned finishers who invested their time in me. As I led people later on, I felt fulfilled only when I was pouring my heart and soul into those who followed. Now that we’re in our third year of owning and operating a concrete pump, I’m perpetually aware of my reliance on Charlie McIntosh, a contractor who also sells and services Reed equipment throughout the Southeast. He’s the pumping guru in our region.
Working in concrete is all about timing. We can’t just stop in our tracks whenever we’re tired, hurting, or frustrated. Furthermore, I’ve learned that getting anxious and panicking only makes matters worse. Learning to stay calm and be patient are the two absolutely essential traits everyone should develop.
Concrete has taught me that, no matter how much pressure we’re under, we are problem solvers with great imaginations. Every day is a new challenge, and we adapt and overcome by thinking through these problems and using our imaginations to envision the best possible way to accomplish what the ordinary citizen could never do.
For me, concrete reinforces the maxim “mind over matter.” Whenever I feel I’ve stretched the limits of my endurance (like working 18-hour days) and reached my breaking point, I’ve somehow been able to do what it takes to get the job done. Stamina, endurance, a high tolerance for pain, confidence, and grit – these are the gifts concrete offers.
Concrete teaches us that, above all, with the right mindset, even though our muscles are cramping up and our joints and tendons are strained and sore, we will never give up. Concrete teaches us we have what it takes.

What Our Industry is Desperately Lacking – SKILLED LABOR

For those contractors out there, we can all relate to the fact that there are no more “skilled workers” in our field anymore. Mostly all of the old-timers who took pride in their job have retired, which leaves us with the younger generation of workers who are just trying to get a fat paycheck while doing the least amount of work as possible.

The real problem with the older and more experienced guys retiring is that most of them did not actually teach the young blood in the industry. I mean it’s hard to blame them because these young guys don’t actually care to learn. They would rather record themselves in construction gear and upload pictures to Instagram/Facebook with the hashtag “another day another dollar” … sad but true

In our industry 99 of 100 people in the field laugh at the idea of leadership development, but 100 of 100 fondly remember the mentoring they received from the folks who taught them and shaped them. That is why I believe that is up to us, small contractors, to set up some type of mentoring programs/internships for high school students to learn the basics of our industry before going to college majoring in a degree that is saturated leaving them with no job and at least $80K in debt.

There is a major shortage of skilled labor as well as workers who are willing to take on a leadership role. With these programs, we will get young adults feet wet in our industry because lets be honest. College isn’t for everybody. It is not a bad thing to be a mason, electrician, plumber etc.. There is a lot of money to be made if you a truly passionate. The problem is that millennials are just misconstrued by the media, which is up to us to help guide them and show them you can live a very good life working in our industry.

The Romans Approach to Engineering Concrete Proves Why “Do as the Romans do” Should Actually Be Practiced Today.

History Lesson for all Concrete Contractors:

Do as the Romans do they say right? I guess now us Italians have some bragging rights considering the Romans were far beyond their years in engineering concrete.

How did the Romans build concrete structures in harbors along the central Italian coast that have lasted thousands of years, while today’s concrete rarely last more than a few decades? The reason is because the Romans invested heavily in designing concrete that could endure earthquakes, remain resilient to corrosive seawater and hold its form even without steel support. They designed the seawater concrete so successfully that it “can neither be dissolved in the waves, nor by the power of water”

Roman concrete is made of volcanic ash, seawater, lime and lumps of volcanic rock. When first laid, chemical reactions would occur between these ingredients and form new substances, including a rare mineral called tobermorite a 2017 study suggests. Intriguingly, whenever a crack appeared in the cement, more tobermorite crystals seem to form and patch the crack, which all of us sidewalk concrete contractors could definitely could use today (Haha)

The Roman concrete depended on rare volcanic ash, making widespread replication difficult. Even so, the finding offers us a new way of looking at concrete: whereas the modern stuff is designed to harden and never change, the Roman approach would produce concrete that effectively heals itself. By finding a material that imitates the Roman ash, we could build structures that would withstand the test of time.

The one con of Roman concrete is that it does takes time to develop strength from seawater, and features less compressive strength than typical Portland cement. For those reasons, it’s unlikely that Roman concrete could become widespread, but could be useful at specific locations and concrete structures.